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The Format function converts a value to a text string and gives you control over the string's appearance. For example, you can specify the number of decimal places for a numeric value, leading or trailing zeros, currency formats, and portions of the date. The syntax is:
Syntax
Format(expression [,format [,firstdayofweek [,firstweekofyear]]])

expression
Any valid expression
format
A valid named or user-defined format expression
firstdayofweek
A constant that specifies the first day of the week
firstweekofyear
A constant that specifies the first week of the year
The firstdayofweek argument has these settings:

Constant Value Description
vbUseSystem 0 Use NLS API setting.
vbSunday 1 Sunday (default)
vbMonday 2 Monday
vbTuesday 3 Tuesday
vbWednesday 4 Wednesday
vbThursday 5 Thursday
vbFriday 6 Friday
vbSaturday 7 Saturday
The firstweekofyear argument has these settings:

Constant Value Description
vbUseSystem 0 Use NLS API setting.
vbFirstJan1 1 Start with week in which January 1 occurs (default).
vbFirstFourDays 2 Start with the first week that has at least four days in the year.
vbFirstFullWeek 3 Start with the first full week of the year.
Notes
If you try to format a number without specifying format, Format provides functionality similar to the Str function, although it is internationally aware. However, positive numbers formatted as strings using Format don’t include a leading space reserved for the sign of the value; those converted using Str retain the leading space.

If you are formatting a non-localized numeric string, you should use a user-defined numeric format to ensure that you get the look you want.

If the Calendar property setting is Gregorian and format specifies date formatting, the supplied expression must be Gregorian. If the Visual Basic Calendar property setting is Hijri, the supplied expression must be Hijri.

If the calendar is Gregorian, the meaning of format expression symbols is unchanged. If the calendar is Hijri, all date format symbols (for example, dddd, mmmm, yyyy) have the same meaning but apply to the Hijri calendar. Format symbols remain in English; symbols that result in text display (for example, AM and PM) display the string (English or Arabic) associated with that symbol. The range of certain symbols changes when the calendar is Hijri.

Formatting Symbols
Character Description
None
No formatting Display the number with no formatting.
: Time separator. In some locales, other characters may be used to represent the time separator. The time separator separates hours, minutes, and seconds when time values are formatted. The actual character used as the time separator in formatted output is determined by your system settings.
/ Date separator. In some locales, other characters may be used to represent the date separator. The date separator separates the day, month, and year when date values are formatted. The actual character used as the date separator in formatted output is determined by your system settings.
C Display the date as ddddd and display the time as t t t t t, in that order. Display only date information if there is no fractional part to the date serial number; display only time information if there is no integer portion.
D Display the day as a number without a leading zero (1 - 31).
dd Display the day as a number with a leading zero (01 - 31).
ddd Display the day as an abbreviation (Sun - Sat).
dddd Display the day as a full name (Sunday - Saturday).
ddddd Display the date as a complete date (including day, month, and year), formatted according to your system's short date format setting. The default short date format is m/d/yy.
dddddd Display a date serial number as a complete date (including day, month, and year) formatted according to the long date setting recognized by your system. The default long date format is mmmm dd, yyyy.
w Display the day of the week as a number (1 for Sunday through 7 for Saturday).
ww Display the week of the year as a number (1 - 53).
m Display the month as a number without a leading zero (1 - 12). If m immediately follows h or hh, the minute rather than the month is displayed.
MM Display the month as a number with a leading zero (01 - 12). If m immediately follows h or hh, the minute rather than the month is displayed.
MMM Display the month as an abbreviation (Jan - Dec).
MMMM Display the month as a full month name (January - December).
q Display the quarter of the year as a number (1 - 4).
y Display the day of the year as a number (1 - 366).
yy Display the year as a 2-digit number (00 - 99).
yyyy Display the year as a 4-digit number (100 - 9666).
h Display the hour as a number without leading zeros (0 - 23).
hh Display the hour as a number with leading zeros (00 - 23).
n Display the minute as a number without leading zeros (0 - 59).
nn Display the minute as a number with leading zeros (00 - 59).
s Display the second as a number without leading zeros (0 - 59).
ss Display the second as a number with leading zeros (00 - 59).
t t t t t Display a time as a complete time (including hour, minute, and second), formatted using the time separator defined by the time format recognized by your system. A leading zero is displayed if the leading zero option is selected and the time is before 10:00 A.M. or P.M. The default time format is h:mm:ss.
AM/PM Use the 12-hour clock and display an uppercase AM with any hour before noon; display an uppercase PM with any hour between noon and 11:59 P.M.
am/pm Use the 12-hour clock and display a lowercase AM with any hour before noon; display a lowercase PM with any hour between noon and 11:59 P.M.
A/P Use the 12-hour clock and display an uppercase A with any hour before noon; display an uppercase P with any hour between noon and 11:59 P.M.
a/p Use the 12-hour clock and display a lowercase A with any hour before noon; display a lowercase P with any hour between noon and 11:59 P.M.
AMPM Use the 12-hour clock and display the AM string literal as defined by your system with any hour before noon; display the PM string literal as defined by your system with any hour between noon and 11:59 P.M. AMPM can be either uppercase or lowercase, but the case of the string displayed matches the string as defined by your system settings. The default format is AM/PM.
0
Digit placeholder Display a digit or a zero. If the expression has a digit in the position where the 0 appears in the format string, display it; otherwise, display a zero in that position. If the number has fewer digits than there are zeros (on either side of the decimal) in the format expression, display leading or trailing zeros. If the number has more digits to the right of the decimal separator than there are zeros to the right of the decimal separator in the format expression, round the number to as many decimal places as there are zeros. If the number has more digits to the left of the decimal separator than there are zeros to the left of the decimal separator in the format expression, display the extra digits without modification.
#
Digit placeholder
Display a digit or nothing. If the expression has a digit in the position where the # appears in the format string, display it; otherwise, display nothing in that position. This symbol works like the 0 digit placeholder, except that leading and trailing zeros aren't displayed if the number has the same or fewer digits than there are # characters on either side of the decimal separator in the format expression.
.
Decimal placeholder
In some locales, a comma is used as the decimal separator. The decimal placeholder determines how many digits are displayed to the left and right of the decimal separator. If the format expression contains only number signs to the left of this symbol, numbers smaller than 1 begin with a decimal separator. If you always want a leading zero displayed with fractional numbers, use 0 as the first digit placeholder to the left of the decimal separator instead. The actual character used as a decimal placeholder in the formatted output depends on the Number Format recognized by your system.
%
Percent placeholder The expression is multiplied by 100. The percent character (%) is inserted in the position where it appears in the format string.
,
Thousand separator In some locales, a period is used as a thousand separator. The thousand separator separates thousands from hundreds within a number that has four or more places to the left of the decimal separator. Standard use of the thousand separator is specified if the format contains a thousand separator surrounded by digit placeholders (0 or #). Two adjacent thousand separators or a thousand separator immediately to the left of the decimal separator (whether or not a decimal is specified) means "scale the number by dividing it by 1000, rounding as needed." You can scale large numbers using this technique. For example, you can use the format string "##0,," to represent 100 million as 100. Numbers smaller than 1 million are displayed as 0. Two adjacent thousand separators in any position other than immediately to the left of the decimal separator are treated simply as specifying the use of a thousand separator. The actual character used as the thousand separator in the formatted output depends on the Number Format recognized by your system.
:
Time separator In some locales, other characters may be used to represent the time separator. The time separator separates hours, minutes, and seconds when time values are formatted. The actual character used as the time separator in formatted output is determined by your system settings.
/
Date separator In some locales, other characters may be used to represent the date separator. The date separator separates the day, month, and year when date values are formatted. The actual character used as the date separator in formatted output is determined by your system settings.
E- E+ e- e+
Scientific format If the format expression contains at least one digit placeholder (0 or #) to the right of E-, E+, e-, or e+, the number is displayed in scientific format and E or e is inserted between the number and its exponent. The number of digit placeholders to the right determines the number of digits in the exponent. Use E- or e- to place a minus sign next to negative exponents. Use E+ or e+ to place a minus sign next to negative exponents and a plus sign next to positive exponents.
- + $ ( ) space
Display a literal character To display a character other than one of those listed, precede it with a backslash (\) or enclose it in double quotation marks (" ").
\
Display the next character in the format string Many characters in the format expression have a special meaning and can't be displayed as literal characters unless they are preceded by a backslash. The backslash itself isn't displayed. Using a backslash is the same as enclosing the next character in double quotation marks. To display a backslash, use two backslashes (\). Examples of characters that can't be displayed as literal characters are the date- and time-formatting characters (a, c, d, h, m, n, p, q, s, t, w, y, and /:), the numeric-formatting characters (#, 0, %, E, e, comma, and period), and the string-formatting characters (@, &, <, >, and !).
"ABC"
Display the string inside the double quotation marks To include a string in format from within code, you must use Chr(34) to enclose the text (34 is the character code for a double quotation mark).
@
Character placeholder Display a character or a space. If the string has a character in the position where the @ appears in the format string, display it; otherwise, display a space in that position. Placeholders are filled from right to left unless there is an ! character in the format string. See below.
&
Character placeholder Display a character or nothing. If the string has a character in the position where the & appears, display it; otherwise, display nothing. Placeholders are filled from right to left unless there is an ! character in the format string. See below.
<> Display all characters in lowercase format.
>
Force uppercase Display all characters in uppercase format.
!
Force left to right fill of placeholders The default is to fill from right to left.
Named Formats
Visual Basic provides several standard formats to use with the Format function. Instead of using symbols, you specify these formats by name in the format argument of the Format function. Always enclose the format name in double quotation marks (""). The following table lists the format names you can use.

Named format Description
General Number Shows numbers as entered.
Currency Shows negative numbers inside parentheses.
Fixed Shows at least one digit.
Standard Uses a thousands separator.
Percent Multiplies the value by 100 with a percent sign at the end.
Scientific Uses standard scientific notation.
General Date Shows date and time if expression contains both. If expression is only a date or a time, the missing information is not displayed.
Long Date Uses the Long Date format specified in the Regional Settings dialog box of the Microsoft Windows Control Panel.
Medium Date Uses the dd-mmm-yy format (for example, 03-Apr-93)
Short Date Uses the Short Date format specified in the Regional Settings dialog box of the Windows Control Panel.
Long Time Shows the hour, minute, second, and "AM" or "PM" using the h:mm:ss format.
Medium Time Shows the hour, minute, and "AM" or "PM" using the "hh:mm AM/PM" format.
Short Time Shows the hour and minute using the hh:mm format.
Yes/No Any nonzero numeric value (usually - 1) is Yes. Zero is No.
True/False Any nonzero numeric value (usually - 1) is True. Zero is False.
On/Off Any nonzero numeric value (usually - 1) is On. Zero is Off.
Multiple Formats
A user-defined format expression can have from one to four sections separated by semicolons. (If the format argument contains one of the named formats, only one section is allowed.)

If you use The result is
One section The format expression applies to all values.
Two sections The first section applies to positive values and zeros, the second to negative values.
Three sections The first section applies to positive values, the second to negative values, and the third to zeros.
Four sections The first section applies to positive values, the second to negative values, the third to zeros, and the fourth to Null values.
The following example has two sections: the first defines the format for positive values and zeros; the second section defines the format for negative values.

$#,##0;($#,##0)
If you include semicolons with nothing between them, the missing section is printed using the format of the positive value. For example, the following format displays positive and negative values using the format in the first section and displays "Zero" if the value is zero.
$#,##0;;\Z\e\r\o
Note If you try to format a number without specifying format, Format provides the same functionality as the Str function. However, positive numbers formatted as strings using Format lack the leading space reserved for displaying the sign of the value; whereas, those converted using Str retain the leading space.
Examples
The following conversions assume that the country in the Windows Control Panel is set to "English (United States)."

Format syntax Result
Format(8315.4, "00000.00") 08315.40
Format(8315.4, "#####.##") 8315.4
Format(8315.4, "##,##0.00") 8,315.40
Format(315.4, "$##0.00") $315.40
Format(7, "0.00%") 700.00%
Format("This Is A Test", "<") this is a test
Format("This Is A Test", ">") THIS IS A TEST
Format(Now, "m/d/yy") 1/27/93
Format(Now, "dddd, mmmm dd, yyyy") Wednesday, January 27, 1993
Format(Now, "d-mmm") 27-Jan
Format(Now, "mmmm-yy") January-93
Format(Now, "hh:mm AM/PM") 07:18 AM
Format(Now, "h:mm:ss a/p") 7:18:00 a
Format(Now, "d-mmmm h:mm" 27-January 7:18
Format(Now, "d-mmmm-yy") 27-January-93
Format(Now, "d mmmm") 27 January
Format(Now, "mmmm yy") January 93
Format(Now, "hh:mm AM/PM") 08:50 PM
Format(Now, "h:mm:ss a/p") 8:50:35 p
Format(Now, "h:mm") 20:50
Format(Now, "h:mm:ss") 20:50:35
Format(Now, "m/d/yy h:mm") 1/27/93 20:50
Format (format) Positive 5 Negative 5 Decimal .5 Null
Zero-length string 5 -5 0.5
0 5 -5 1
0.00 5.00 -5.00 0.50
#,##0 5 -5 1
#,##0.00;;;Nil 5.00 -5.00 0.50 Nil
$#,##0;($#,##0) $5 ($5) $1
$#,##0.00;($#,##0.00) $5.00 ($5.00) $0.50
0% 500% -500% 50%
0.00% 500.00% -500.00% 50.00%
0.00E+00 5.00E+00 -5.00E+00 5.00E-01
0.00E-00 5.00E00 -5.00E00 5.00E-01

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